Some days ago, @daftaupe@mamot.fr convinced me on Mastodon to give BTRFS a try. That’s actually been a feature on my list for some time already, and now that I need to switch PCs at work I’m going for it. However, this post wouldn’t exist if everything went straight forward.. ;-)

The Scenario

I have a 1TB SSD that I want to encrypt. It should automatically get decrypted and mounted to certain places when I log in. pam_mount can do that for you, and I’ve already been using that a lot in different scenarios. However, with BTRFS it’s a bit different. With any other file systems you would create a partition on the hard drive, which is then LUKS encrypted. This has the drawback, that you need to decide on the partition’s size beforehand!

With BTRFS you can just encrypt the whole drive and use so-called subvolumes on top of it. Thus, you’re a bit more flexible by creating and adjusting quotas as required at any point in time (if at all…), but (or and!) the subvolumes are not visible unless the device is decrypted.

Let’s have a look into that and create the scenario. I assume that the SSD is available as /dev/sdb. Then we can create an encrypted container using LUKS:

root@srv ~ # cryptsetup -y -v --cipher aes-xts-plain64 --key-size 256 --hash sha256 luksFormat /dev/sdb

WARNING!
========
This will overwrite data on /dev/sdb irrevocably.

Are you sure? (Type uppercase yes): YES
Enter passphrase for /dev/sdb: ****
Verify passphrase: ****
Key slot 0 created.
Command successful.

You’re not sure which cipher or key-size to choose? Just run cryptsetup benchmark to see which settings perform best for you. My CPU, for example, comes with hardware support for AES, thus the AES ciphers show a significantly higher throughput. If you’re still feeling uncompfortable with that step, I recommend reading the sophisticated article at the ArchLinux’ wiki on dm-crypt/Device encryption.

We can now open the encrypted device using

root@srv ~ # cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdb mydrive
Enter passphrase for /dev/sdb: ****

This will create a node in /dev/mapper/mydrive, which represents the decrypted device.

Next, we’ll create a BTRFS on that device:

root@srv ~ # mkfs.btrfs /dev/mapper/mydrive
btrfs-progs v4.17
See http://btrfs.wiki.kernel.org for more information.

Detected a SSD, turning off metadata duplication.  Mkfs with -m dup if you want to force metadata duplication.
Label:              home
UUID:               d1e1e1f9-7273-4b29-ae43-4b9ca411c2ba
Node size:          16384
Sector size:        4096
Filesystem size:    931.51GiB
Block group profiles:
Data:             single            8.00MiB
Metadata:         single            8.00MiB
System:           single            4.00MiB
SSD detected:       yes
Incompat features:  extref, skinny-metadata
Number of devices:  1
Devices:
ID        SIZE  PATH
1   931.51GiB  /dev/mapper/mydrive

That’s indeed super fast, isn’t it!? I also couldn’t believe it.. ;-)

We can now mount the device, for example to /mnt/mountain:

root@srv ~ # mount /dev/mapper/mydrive /mnt/mountain
root@srv ~ # cd /mnt/mountain

So far, the file system is completely empty. But as it’s a BTRFS, we can create some subvolumes. Let’s say, we want to create a volume for our $HOME, and as we’re developing this website, we also want to create a volume called www:

root@srv /mnt/mountain # btrfs subvolume create home
Create subvolume './home'

root@srv /mnt/mountain # btrfs subvolume create www
Create subvolume './www'

root@srv /mnt/mountain # btrfs subvolume list .
ID 258 gen 21 top level 5 path home
ID 259 gen 22 top level 5 path www

So we have two subvolumes in that file system: home (id 258) and www (id 259). We could now mount them with

root@srv ~ # mount -o subvol=/home /dev/mapper/mydrive  /home/user
root@srv ~ # mount -o subvol=/www  /dev/mapper/mydrive  /var/www

But we want the system to do it automatically for us, as we login.

So unmount everything and close the LUKS container:

root@srv ~ # umount /mnt/mountain /home/user /var/www
root@srv ~ # cryptsetup luksClose mydrive

PamMount can Decrypt and Mount Automatically

I’m using pam_mount already for ages! It is super convenient. To get your home automatically decrypted and mounted, you would just need to add the following lines to your /etc/security/pam_mount.conf.xml:

<volume path="/dev/disk/by-uuid/a1b20e2f-049c-4e5f-89be-2fc0fa3dd564" user="YOU"
        mountpoint="/home/user" options="defaults,noatime,compress,subvol=/home" />

<volume path="/dev/disk/by-uuid/a1b20e2f-049c-4e5f-89be-2fc0fa3dd564" user="YOU"
        mountpoint="/var/www" options="defaults,noatime,compress,subvol=/www" />

Given this, PAM tries to mount the respective subvolumes of the disk (identified by the UUID a1b20e2f-049c-...) to /home/user and /var/www as soon as YOU logs in.

Here, I am using UUIDs to identify the disks. You can still use /dev/sdb (or similar), but there is a chance, that the disks are recognised in a different sequence with the next boot (and /dev/sdb may become /dev/sdc or something…). Plus, the UUID is invariant to the system – you can put the disk in any other machine and it will have the same UUID.

To find the UUID of your disk you can use blkid:

root@srv ~ # blkid
[...]
/dev/sdb: UUID="a1b20e2f-049c-4e5f-89be-2fc0fa3dd564" TYPE="crypto_LUKS"
[...]

The Problem

As said above, with BTRFS you’ll have your partitions (called subvolumes) right in the filesystem – invisible unless decrypted. So, what is PAM doing? It discovers the first entry in the pam_mount.conf.xml configuration, which basically says

mount a1b20e2f-049c-... with some extra options to /home/user when YOU logs in

PAM is also smart enough to understand that a1b20e2f-049c-... is a LUKS encrypted device and it decrypts it using your login password. This will then create a node in /dev/mapper/_dev_sdb, representing the decrypted device. And eventually, PAM mounts /dev/mapper/_dev_sdb to /home/user. So far so perfect.

But as soon as PAM discovers the second entry, it tries to do the same! Again it detects a LUKS device and tries to decrypt that. But unfortunately, there is already /dev/mapper/_dev_sdb!? Thus, opening the LUKS drive fails and you’ll find something like that in your /var/log/auth.log:

(mount.c:72): Messages from underlying mount program:
(mount.c:76): crypt_activate_by_passphrase: File exists
(pam_mount.c:522): mount of /dev/disk/by-uuid/a1b20e2f-049c-... failed

First it seems annoying that it doesn’t work out of the box, but at least it sounds reasonable that PAM cannot do what you what it to do..

The Solution

… is quite easy, even though it took me a while to figure things out…

As soon as the first subvolume is mounted (and the device is decrypted and available through /dev/mapper/_dev_sdb), we have direct access to the file system! Thus, we do not neet to tell PAM to mount /dev/disk/by-uuid/a1b20e2f-049c-..., but we can use /dev/mapper/_dev_sdb. Or even better, we can use the file system’s UUID now, to become invariant to the sdb-variable. If you run blkid with the device being decrypted you’ll find an entry like this:

root@srv ~ # blkid
[...]
/dev/sdb: UUID="a1b20e2f-049c-..." TYPE="crypto_LUKS"
/dev/mapper/_dev_sdb: UUID="d1e1e1f9-7273-..." UUID_SUB="..." TYPE="btrfs"
[...]

You see, the new node /dev/mapper/_dev_sdb also carries a UUID, actually representing the BTRFS :)
This UUID was by the way also reported by the mkfs.btrfs call above.

What does that mean for our setup? When we first need a subvolume of an encrypted drive we need to use the UUID of the parent LUKS container. For every subsequent subvolume we can use the UUID of the internal FS.

Transferred to the above scenario, we’d create a /etc/security/pam_mount.conf.xml like that:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE pam_mount SYSTEM "pam_mount.conf.xml.dtd">
<pam_mount>

  <volume path="/dev/disk/by-uuid/a1b20e2f-049c-4e5f-89be-2fc0fa3dd564" user="YOU"
          mountpoint="/home/user" options="defaults,noatime,subvol=/home" />

  <volume path="/dev/disk/by-uuid/d1e1e1f9-7273-4b29-ae43-4b9ca411c2ba" user="YOU"
          mountpoint="/var/www" options="defaults,noatime,subvol=/www" />

  <mkmountpoint enable="1" remove="true" />

</pam_mount>

Note the different UUIDs? Even though both mounts origin from the same FS :)

Open Problems

Actually, I wanted to have my home in a raid of two devices, but I don’t know how to tell pam_mount to decrypt two devices to make BTRFS handle the raid..? The only option seems to use mdadm to create the raid, but then BTRFS just sees a single device and, therefore, cannot do its extra raid magic

If anyone has an idea on that issue you’ll have my ears :)


Martin Scharm

stuff. just for the records.


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