Window Open Features: Restrict and Test

Are you also annoyed by websites that open popups and external windows without your menu bar? And without scrollbars and no close button and … and .. and..

Restrict Window Open Features

Don’t worry, you can disable these “features”! In Firefox, open about:config and search for dom.disable_window_open_feature (see @azure’s pleroma post). Full documentation on these settings are available through MozillaZine. These preferences can also be set (and locked) system wide, which may be useful for multi-user and multi-system environments

Test Window Open Features

Mozilla’s Developer portal has a documentation on possible Window Open Features. There you can learn which features are available, what they mean, and how to set them.

Testing is then pretty easy. The following checkboxes allow for enabling/disabling most useful window features. If a box is ticked, the corresponding feature will be set; if it’s unticked the feature will be turned off. You can then click the link below to test how your browser behaves when opening this blog using the chosen set of features.

TEST NOW: Open binfalse.de using above settings.

The test should be browser independent, you just need to have Javascript enabled. However, let me know if it doesn’t work for you!

To see how I implemented the test tool take a look into the source code of this page, or check the script on GitHub. Remember? This blog is all open source :)

Say »Hello« to Staticman

Recently, I stumbled upon Staticman, which seems like a nice solution for comments on static sites (such as this). Today I implemented Staticman into binfalse.de :)

The idea is, that you have your static site version controlled at GitHub. Then you can add the Staticman App to your repository and add some configuration file, so Staticman knows where and how to save the comments. Also add a form to your static site, that sends the commenting user with the form values to an API page of Staticman.

Staticman will then create the necessary YAML files and send you a pull request to the corresponding repository. Thus, you only need to accept the PR and your site will rebuild with the new comment. Pretty smart I think :)

Integrating Staticman is pretty easy. Just follow the step-by-step guide at staticman.net/docs/index.html.

In contrast to many other approaches you still own the comment and don’t need to load it from some third party. The only privacy concern is, that users need to contact the Staticman API for sending the form values. However, that seems to be rather harmless compared to what is the default out there… As it’s still a concern, you can always use any of the other options to send comments. I’ll keep listing them above the comment form. Thus, it’s up to the user what’s more convenient/important :)

If you’re curious, I’d be happy if you give it a try!

Migrating from sSMTP to msmtp

As I described earlier, I’ve been using sSMTP for email support in Docker containers. Unfortunately, sSMTP is not maintained anymore. Instead msmtp should be used. I put the migration off for as long as possible, but eventually implemented the change!

For legacy reasons I will leave my orginal articles about sSMTP untouched (I’ll just add a link to this page), and instead post this migration how-to.

Given

Let’s assume we’ve been using the following sSMTP config in /etc/ssmtp/ssmtp.conf:

FromLineOverride=YES
mailhub=RELAY
hostname=HOSTNAME
UseTLS=YES
UseSTARTTLS=YES

In addition, we somewhere needed to tell the system/software/module how to send mails. For example, for PHP it would be somthing like that in /usr/local/etc/php/conf.d/mail.ini:

[mail function]
sendmail_path = "/usr/sbin/ssmtp -t"

Then

In that case you would need a msmtp configuration in /etc/msmtprc:

defaults
port 25
tls on

account default
auth off
host RELAY
domain HOSTNAME
from webserver@HOSTNAME
add_missing_date_header on

In addition, you need to tell the system/software/module send mails via /usr/bin/msmtp -t. For example, for PHP it would be somthing like that in /usr/local/etc/php/conf.d/mail.ini:

[mail function]
sendmail_path = "/usr/bin/msmtp -t"

Please note that msmtp is in /usr/bin not /usr/sbin !! ;-)

Supplemental Material

  • The paths mentioned above are target paths. Thus, if you’re using Docker it actually doesn’t matter where you store the files, but you need to mount them to those paths inside the container..
  • There are much more options for msmtp! You can also configure an actual mail account at Posteo or Google or wherever. I recommend checking its documentation and Arch’s Wiki.

Jekyll throwing Strange Error at library.rb:112

Just had a strange error when renbuilding one of the websites I’m in charge of.. Pretty quickly it turned out, that Jekyll was broken..!? Ruby itself was running as usual, but I couldn’t even ask Jekyll for its version.

The error was very cryptic and didn’t provide any hint on how to fix things. The internet also didn’t help much, that’s why I’m logging it here. I just managed to fix it by chance: A (rather unsimilar) bug report was talking about sassc. As I did not have an idea on how to approach the problem, I just tried (re)installing the tool. And it did the trick…!? Not sure why, and not sure why it wasn’t installed as a dependency with Jekyll, or …!?

However, running

gem install sassc

did fixed it for me (patch for the corresponding Docker image).

Update

The above didn’t actually fully-solve the problem. It just re-installed sassc locally, which fixed the issue in the container on the current platform. However, when I compile the very same image at the Docker Hub and pull the new version it’s broken again..!? The sassc compilation product seems to be plattform dependent!? #wtf

Anyway. I finally got it fixed by installing sassc using --disable-march-tune-native, see also github.com/sass/sassc-ruby/issues/146:

gem install sassc -- --disable-march-tune-native

The updated patch for my Docker image is available from GitHub.

Log

Maybe that can be of help for somebody else? Here is the full error that was thrown:

root@cb400a65d394:/jekyll# jekyll -v
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:112: [BUG] Illegal instruction at 0x00007f4f75159acd
ruby 2.5.7p206 (2019-10-01 revision 67816) [x86_64-linux-gnu]

-- Control frame information -----------------------------------------------
c:0026 p:---- s:0148 e:000147 CFUNC  :open
c:0025 p:0022 s:0142 e:000141 BLOCK  /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:112 [FINISH]
c:0024 p:---- s:0133 e:000132 CFUNC  :each
c:0023 p:0113 s:0129 e:000128 BLOCK  /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:109 [FINISH]
c:0022 p:---- s:0122 e:000121 CFUNC  :map
c:0021 p:0069 s:0118 e:000117 METHOD /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:99
c:0020 p:0078 s:0111 e:000110 CLASS  /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc/native.rb:11
c:0019 p:0007 s:0107 e:000106 CLASS  /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc/native.rb:6
c:0018 p:0014 s:0104 e:000103 TOP    /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc/native.rb:5 [FINISH]
c:0017 p:---- s:0101 e:000100 CFUNC  :require_relative
c:0016 p:0021 s:0096 e:000095 TOP    /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc.rb:31 [FINISH]
c:0015 p:---- s:0093 e:000092 CFUNC  :require
c:0014 p:0110 s:0088 e:000087 METHOD /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
c:0013 p:0006 s:0076 e:000075 TOP    /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-sass-converter-2.0.1/lib/jekyll/converters/scss.rb:3 [FINISH]
c:0012 p:---- s:0073 e:000072 CFUNC  :require
c:0011 p:0110 s:0068 e:000067 METHOD /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
c:0010 p:0013 s:0056 e:000055 TOP    /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-sass-converter-2.0.1/lib/jekyll-sass-converter.rb:4 [FINISH]
c:0009 p:---- s:0053 e:000052 CFUNC  :require
c:0008 p:0110 s:0048 e:000047 METHOD /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
c:0007 p:0226 s:0036 e:000035 TOP    /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-4.0.0/lib/jekyll.rb:206 [FINISH]
c:0006 p:---- s:0033 e:000032 CFUNC  :require
c:0005 p:0110 s:0028 e:000027 METHOD /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59
c:0004 p:0041 s:0016 e:000015 TOP    /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-4.0.0/exe/jekyll:8 [FINISH]
c:0003 p:---- s:0013 e:000012 CFUNC  :load
c:0002 p:0132 s:0008 E:000860 EVAL   /usr/local/bin/jekyll:23 [FINISH]
c:0001 p:0000 s:0003 E:000c10 (none) [FINISH]

-- Ruby level backtrace information ----------------------------------------
/usr/local/bin/jekyll:23:in `<main>'
/usr/local/bin/jekyll:23:in `load'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-4.0.0/exe/jekyll:8:in `<top (required)>'
/usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
/usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-4.0.0/lib/jekyll.rb:206:in `<top (required)>'
/usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
/usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-sass-converter-2.0.1/lib/jekyll-sass-converter.rb:4:in `<top (required)>'
/usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
/usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/jekyll-sass-converter-2.0.1/lib/jekyll/converters/scss.rb:3:in `<top (required)>'
/usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
/usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb:59:in `require'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc.rb:31:in `<top (required)>'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc.rb:31:in `require_relative'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc/native.rb:5:in `<top (required)>'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc/native.rb:6:in `<module:SassC>'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc/native.rb:11:in `<module:Native>'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:99:in `ffi_lib'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:99:in `map'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:109:in `block in ffi_lib'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:109:in `each'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:112:in `block (2 levels) in ffi_lib'
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi/library.rb:112:in `open'

-- Machine register context ------------------------------------------------
 RIP: 0x00007f4f75159acd RBP: 0x00007ffe0bc8a260 RSP: 0x00007ffe0bc898b8
 RAX: 0x3ff0000000000000 RBX: 0x00007ffe0bc898d0 RCX: 0x00000000000003bd
 RDX: 0x00007f4f752923bd RDI: 0x00007ffe0bc898e0 RSI: 0x00007ffe0bc898d0
  R8: 0x0000557270544740  R9: 0x00007f4f75c30170 R10: 0x0000000000000000
 R11: 0x00007f4f75c80ec0 R12: 0x00007f4f752f1500 R13: 0x00007f4f74f93ff0
 R14: 0x00007ffe0bc8a2c0 R15: 0x00007ffe0bc898d0 EFL: 0x0000000000010202

-- C level backtrace information -------------------------------------------
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e7da75) [0x7f4f75e7da75]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e7dca8) [0x7f4f75e7dca8]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d431f9) [0x7f4f75d431f9]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e0b352) [0x7f4f75e0b352]
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6(0x7f4f75b2e100) [0x7f4f75b2e100]
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc/libsass.so(0x7f4f75159acd) [0x7f4f75159acd]
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/sassc-2.2.1/lib/sassc/libsass.so(0x7f4f75158424) [0x7f4f75158424]
/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2(0x7f4f75f8b5ba) [0x7f4f75f8b5ba]
/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2(0x7f4f75f8b6b9) [0x7f4f75f8b6b9]
/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2(0x7f4f75f8f473) [0x7f4f75f8f473]
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6(_dl_catch_exception+0x71) [0x7f4f75c28bc1]
/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2(0x7f4f75f8ed7a) [0x7f4f75f8ed7a]
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl.so.2(0x7f4f75a4c258) [0x7f4f75a4c258]
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6(_dl_catch_exception+0x71) [0x7f4f75c28bc1]
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6(_dl_catch_error+0x2f) [0x7f4f75c28c5f]
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl.so.2(0x7f4f75a4c995) [0x7f4f75a4c995]
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl.so.2(dlopen+0x46) [0x7f4f75a4c2e6]
/var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi_c.so(library_initialize+0x71) [0x7f4f754b47d1] DynamicLibrary.c:124
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e63de3) [0x7f4f75e63de3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e7105f) [0x7f4f75e7105f]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e71f4b) [0x7f4f75e71f4b]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6a202) [0x7f4f75e6a202]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6eaf4) [0x7f4f75e6eaf4]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(rb_yield+0x369) [0x7f4f75e77599]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(rb_ary_each+0x3c) [0x7f4f75ce44ac]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e63de3) [0x7f4f75e63de3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e7105f) [0x7f4f75e7105f]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e71f4b) [0x7f4f75e71f4b]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e699eb) [0x7f4f75e699eb]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6eaf4) [0x7f4f75e6eaf4]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e75e64) [0x7f4f75e75e64]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75ce83dc) [0x7f4f75ce83dc]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e63de3) [0x7f4f75e63de3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e7105f) [0x7f4f75e7105f]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e71f4b) [0x7f4f75e71f4b]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e699eb) [0x7f4f75e699eb]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6eaf4) [0x7f4f75e6eaf4]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d82ab1) [0x7f4f75d82ab1]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d847d9) [0x7f4f75d847d9]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(rb_require_safe+0x9) [0x7f4f75d84959]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e63de3) [0x7f4f75e63de3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e7105f) [0x7f4f75e7105f]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e71f4b) [0x7f4f75e71f4b]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6a202) [0x7f4f75e6a202]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6eaf4) [0x7f4f75e6eaf4]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d82ab1) [0x7f4f75d82ab1]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d847d9) [0x7f4f75d847d9]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(rb_require_safe+0x9) [0x7f4f75d84959]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e63de3) [0x7f4f75e63de3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6a202) [0x7f4f75e6a202]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6eaf4) [0x7f4f75e6eaf4]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d82ab1) [0x7f4f75d82ab1]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d847d9) [0x7f4f75d847d9]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(rb_require_safe+0x9) [0x7f4f75d84959]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e63de3) [0x7f4f75e63de3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6a202) [0x7f4f75e6a202]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6eaf4) [0x7f4f75e6eaf4]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d82ab1) [0x7f4f75d82ab1]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d847d9) [0x7f4f75d847d9]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(rb_require_safe+0x9) [0x7f4f75d84959]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e63de3) [0x7f4f75e63de3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6a202) [0x7f4f75e6a202]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6eaf4) [0x7f4f75e6eaf4]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d82ab1) [0x7f4f75d82ab1]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d847d9) [0x7f4f75d847d9]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(rb_require_safe+0x9) [0x7f4f75d84959]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e63de3) [0x7f4f75e63de3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6a202) [0x7f4f75e6a202]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6eaf4) [0x7f4f75e6eaf4]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d82ab1) [0x7f4f75d82ab1]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d83078) [0x7f4f75d83078]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d8318c) [0x7f4f75d8318c]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e63de3) [0x7f4f75e63de3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e7105f) [0x7f4f75e7105f]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e71f4b) [0x7f4f75e71f4b]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6a202) [0x7f4f75e6a202]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75e6eaf4) [0x7f4f75e6eaf4]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(0x7f4f75d46ef3) [0x7f4f75d46ef3]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(ruby_exec_node+0x1d) [0x7f4f75d48d8d]
/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5(ruby_run_node+0x1e) [0x7f4f75d4b24e]
/usr/bin/ruby2.5(0x55726f8f60eb) [0x55726f8f60eb]
/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6(__libc_start_main+0xeb) [0x7f4f75b1abbb]
/usr/bin/ruby2.5(_start+0x2a) [0x55726f8f611a]

-- Other runtime information -----------------------------------------------

* Loaded script: /usr/local/bin/jekyll

* Loaded features:

    0 enumerator.so
    1 thread.rb
    2 rational.so
    3 complex.so
    4 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/enc/encdb.so
    5 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/enc/trans/transdb.so
    6 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/rbconfig.rb
    7 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/compatibility.rb
    8 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/defaults.rb
    9 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/deprecate.rb
   10 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/errors.rb
   11 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/version.rb
   12 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/requirement.rb
   13 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/platform.rb
   14 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/basic_specification.rb
   15 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/stub_specification.rb
   16 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/util/list.rb
   17 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/stringio.so
   18 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/rfc2396_parser.rb
   19 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/rfc3986_parser.rb
   20 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/common.rb
   21 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/generic.rb
   22 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/ftp.rb
   23 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/http.rb
   24 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/https.rb
   25 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/ldap.rb
   26 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/ldaps.rb
   27 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri/mailto.rb
   28 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/uri.rb
   29 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/specification.rb
   30 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/exceptions.rb
   31 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/rubygems/defaults/operating_system.rb
   32 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/dependency.rb
   33 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_gem.rb
   34 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/monitor.rb
   35 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/core_ext/kernel_require.rb
   36 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems.rb
   37 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/path_support.rb
   38 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/version.rb
   39 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/core_ext/name_error.rb
   40 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/levenshtein.rb
   41 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/jaro_winkler.rb
   42 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/spell_checker.rb
   43 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/delegate.rb
   44 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/name_error_checkers/class_name_checker.rb
   45 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/name_error_checkers/variable_name_checker.rb
   46 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/name_error_checkers.rb
   47 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/method_name_checker.rb
   48 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/key_error_checker.rb
   49 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/spell_checkers/null_checker.rb
   50 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean/formatters/plain_formatter.rb
   51 /usr/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/did_you_mean.rb
   52 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/tsort.rb
   53 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/request_set/gem_dependency_api.rb
   54 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/request_set/lockfile/parser.rb
   55 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/request_set/lockfile/tokenizer.rb
   56 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/request_set/lockfile.rb
   57 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/request_set.rb
   58 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/util.rb
   59 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/gem_metadata.rb
   60 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/errors.rb
   61 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/set.rb
   62 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph/action.rb
   63 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph/add_edge_no_circular.rb
   64 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph/add_vertex.rb
   65 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph/delete_edge.rb
   66 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph/detach_vertex_named.rb
   67 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph/set_payload.rb
   68 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph/tag.rb
   69 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph/log.rb
   70 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph/vertex.rb
   71 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/dependency_graph.rb
   72 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/state.rb
   73 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/modules/specification_provider.rb
   74 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/delegates/resolution_state.rb
   75 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/delegates/specification_provider.rb
   76 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/resolution.rb
   77 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/resolver.rb
   78 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo/modules/ui.rb
   79 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo/lib/molinillo.rb
   80 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/molinillo.rb
   81 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/activation_request.rb
   82 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/conflict.rb
   83 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/dependency_request.rb
   84 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/requirement_list.rb
   85 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/stats.rb
   86 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/set.rb
   87 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/api_set.rb
   88 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/composed_set.rb
   89 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/best_set.rb
   90 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/current_set.rb
   91 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/git_set.rb
   92 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/index_set.rb
   93 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/installer_set.rb
   94 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/lock_set.rb
   95 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/vendor_set.rb
   96 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/source_set.rb
   97 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/specification.rb
   98 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/spec_specification.rb
   99 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/api_specification.rb
  100 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/git_specification.rb
  101 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/index_specification.rb
  102 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/installed_specification.rb
  103 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/local_specification.rb
  104 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/lock_specification.rb
  105 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver/vendor_specification.rb
  106 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/resolver.rb
  107 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/source/git.rb
  108 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/source/installed.rb
  109 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/source/specific_file.rb
  110 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/source/local.rb
  111 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/source/lock.rb
  112 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/source/vendor.rb
  113 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/source.rb
  114 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/forwardable/impl.rb
  115 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/forwardable.rb
  116 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/etc.so
  117 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/fileutils.rb
  118 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/date_core.so
  119 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/date.rb
  120 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/time.rb
  121 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/English.rb
  122 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/pathname.so
  123 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/pathname.rb
  124 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/logger.rb
  125 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/csv.rb
  126 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/json/version.rb
  127 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/ostruct.rb
  128 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/json/generic_object.rb
  129 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/json/common.rb
  130 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/parser.so
  131 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/generator.so
  132 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext.rb
  133 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/json.rb
  134 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/pathutil-0.16.2/lib/pathutil/helpers.rb
  135 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/forwardable-extended-2.6.0/lib/forwardable/extended/version.rb
  136 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/forwardable-extended-2.6.0/lib/forwardable/extended.rb
  137 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/find.rb
  138 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/pathutil-0.16.2/lib/pathutil.rb
  139 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/addressable-2.7.0/lib/addressable/version.rb
  140 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/rubygems/bundler_version_finder.rb
  141 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/addressable-2.7.0/lib/addressable/idna/pure.rb
  142 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/addressable-2.7.0/lib/addressable/idna.rb
  143 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/public_suffix-4.0.3/lib/public_suffix/domain.rb
  144 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/public_suffix-4.0.3/lib/public_suffix/version.rb
  145 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/public_suffix-4.0.3/lib/public_suffix/errors.rb
  146 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/public_suffix-4.0.3/lib/public_suffix/rule.rb
  147 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/public_suffix-4.0.3/lib/public_suffix/list.rb
  148 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/public_suffix-4.0.3/lib/public_suffix.rb
  149 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/addressable-2.7.0/lib/addressable/uri.rb
  150 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/versions.rb
  151 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/exception.rb
  152 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/syntax_error.rb
  153 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/psych.so
  154 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/omap.rb
  155 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/set.rb
  156 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/class_loader.rb
  157 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/strscan.so
  158 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/scalar_scanner.rb
  159 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/nodes/node.rb
  160 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/nodes/stream.rb
  161 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/nodes/document.rb
  162 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/nodes/sequence.rb
  163 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/nodes/scalar.rb
  164 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/nodes/mapping.rb
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  166 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/nodes.rb
  167 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/streaming.rb
  168 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/visitors/visitor.rb
  169 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/visitors/to_ruby.rb
  170 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/visitors/emitter.rb
  171 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/handler.rb
  172 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/tree_builder.rb
  173 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/visitors/yaml_tree.rb
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  175 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/visitors/json_tree.rb
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  177 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/visitors.rb
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  179 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/coder.rb
  180 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/core_ext.rb
  181 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/stream.rb
  182 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/json/yaml_events.rb
  183 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/json/tree_builder.rb
  184 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/json/stream.rb
  185 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych/handlers/document_stream.rb
  186 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/psych.rb
  187 /usr/lib/ruby/2.5.0/yaml.rb
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  191 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/safe_yaml-1.0.5/lib/safe_yaml/parse/sexagesimal.rb
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  196 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/safe_yaml-1.0.5/lib/safe_yaml/transform/to_float.rb
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  228 /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/liquid-4.0.3/lib/liquid/range_lookup.rb
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  233 /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/cgi/escape.so
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* Process memory map:

55726f8f5000-55726f8f6000 r--p 00000000 08:03 1049144                    /usr/bin/ruby2.5
55726f8f6000-55726f8f7000 r-xp 00001000 08:03 1049144                    /usr/bin/ruby2.5
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55726f8f9000-55726f8fa000 rw-p 00003000 08:03 1049144                    /usr/bin/ruby2.5
55726fef0000-557270e80000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0                          [heap]
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7f4f7540e000-7f4f75413000 r-xp 00002000 08:03 1053537                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/generator.so
7f4f75413000-7f4f75415000 r--p 00007000 08:03 1053537                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/generator.so
7f4f75415000-7f4f75416000 r--p 00008000 08:03 1053537                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/generator.so
7f4f75416000-7f4f75417000 rw-p 00009000 08:03 1053537                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/generator.so
7f4f75417000-7f4f75419000 r--p 00000000 08:03 1053538                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/parser.so
7f4f75419000-7f4f7541c000 r-xp 00002000 08:03 1053538                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/parser.so
7f4f7541c000-7f4f7541d000 r--p 00005000 08:03 1053538                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/parser.so
7f4f7541d000-7f4f7541e000 ---p 00006000 08:03 1053538                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/parser.so
7f4f7541e000-7f4f7541f000 r--p 00006000 08:03 1053538                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/parser.so
7f4f7541f000-7f4f75420000 rw-p 00007000 08:03 1053538                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/json/ext/parser.so
7f4f75420000-7f4f75422000 r--p 00000000 08:03 1053542                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/pathname.so
7f4f75422000-7f4f75426000 r-xp 00002000 08:03 1053542                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/pathname.so
7f4f75426000-7f4f75428000 r--p 00006000 08:03 1053542                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/pathname.so
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7f4f75429000-7f4f7542a000 rw-p 00008000 08:03 1053542                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/pathname.so
7f4f7542a000-7f4f7542d000 r--p 00000000 08:03 1053456                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/date_core.so
7f4f7542d000-7f4f75456000 r-xp 00003000 08:03 1053456                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/date_core.so
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7f4f7545d000-7f4f7545e000 ---p 00033000 08:03 1053456                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/date_core.so
7f4f7545e000-7f4f7545f000 r--p 00033000 08:03 1053456                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/date_core.so
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7f4f75460000-7f4f75461000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 
7f4f75461000-7f4f75463000 r--p 00000000 08:03 1053526                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/etc.so
7f4f75463000-7f4f75466000 r-xp 00002000 08:03 1053526                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/etc.so
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7f4f75483000-7f4f75487000 r--s 00000000 08:03 978850                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl-2.29.so
7f4f75487000-7f4f7548a000 r--p 00000000 08:03 978858                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgcc_s.so.1
7f4f7548a000-7f4f7549b000 r-xp 00003000 08:03 978858                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgcc_s.so.1
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7f4f754a2000-7f4f754a6000 r--s 00000000 08:03 1049144                    /usr/bin/ruby2.5
7f4f754a6000-7f4f754ab000 r--p 00000000 08:03 1186360                    /var/lib/gems/2.5.0/gems/ffi-1.12.2/lib/ffi_c.so
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7f4f754d9000-7f4f754da000 r--p 00003000 08:03 1053512                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/enc/trans/transdb.so
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7f4f754db000-7f4f754dc000 r--p 00000000 08:03 1053469                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/enc/encdb.so
7f4f754dc000-7f4f754dd000 r-xp 00001000 08:03 1053469                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/enc/encdb.so
7f4f754dd000-7f4f754de000 r--p 00002000 08:03 1053469                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/enc/encdb.so
7f4f754de000-7f4f754df000 r--p 00002000 08:03 1053469                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/enc/encdb.so
7f4f754df000-7f4f754e0000 rw-p 00003000 08:03 1053469                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ruby/2.5.0/enc/encdb.so
7f4f754e0000-7f4f755e1000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 
7f4f755e1000-7f4f758c6000 r--p 00000000 08:03 1064470                    /usr/lib/locale/locale-archive
7f4f758c6000-7f4f758c9000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 
7f4f758c9000-7f4f758d8000 r--p 00000000 08:03 978865                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libm-2.29.so
7f4f758d8000-7f4f75973000 r-xp 0000f000 08:03 978865                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libm-2.29.so
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7f4f75a0e000-7f4f75a10000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 
7f4f75a10000-7f4f75a12000 r--p 00000000 08:03 979574                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libcrypt.so.1.1.0
7f4f75a12000-7f4f75a27000 r-xp 00002000 08:03 979574                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libcrypt.so.1.1.0
7f4f75a27000-7f4f75a41000 r--p 00017000 08:03 979574                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libcrypt.so.1.1.0
7f4f75a41000-7f4f75a42000 r--p 00030000 08:03 979574                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libcrypt.so.1.1.0
7f4f75a42000-7f4f75a43000 rw-p 00031000 08:03 979574                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libcrypt.so.1.1.0
7f4f75a43000-7f4f75a4b000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 
7f4f75a4b000-7f4f75a4c000 r--p 00000000 08:03 978850                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl-2.29.so
7f4f75a4c000-7f4f75a4d000 r-xp 00001000 08:03 978850                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl-2.29.so
7f4f75a4d000-7f4f75a4e000 r--p 00002000 08:03 978850                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl-2.29.so
7f4f75a4e000-7f4f75a4f000 r--p 00002000 08:03 978850                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl-2.29.so
7f4f75a4f000-7f4f75a50000 rw-p 00003000 08:03 978850                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl-2.29.so
7f4f75a50000-7f4f75a5b000 r--p 00000000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75a5b000-7f4f75ab9000 r-xp 0000b000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ab9000-7f4f75ad0000 r--p 00069000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ad0000-7f4f75ad1000 ---p 00080000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ad1000-7f4f75ad2000 r--p 00080000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ad2000-7f4f75ad3000 rw-p 00081000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ad3000-7f4f75ada000 r--p 00000000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75ada000-7f4f75ae9000 r-xp 00007000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75ae9000-7f4f75aee000 r--p 00016000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75aee000-7f4f75aef000 r--p 0001a000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75aef000-7f4f75af0000 rw-p 0001b000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75af0000-7f4f75af4000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 
7f4f75af4000-7f4f75b19000 r--p 00000000 08:03 978842                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.29.so
7f4f75b19000-7f4f75c60000 r-xp 00025000 08:03 978842                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.29.so
7f4f75c60000-7f4f75ca9000 r--p 0016c000 08:03 978842                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.29.so
7f4f75a50000-7f4f75a5b000 r--p 00000000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75a5b000-7f4f75ab9000 r-xp 0000b000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ab9000-7f4f75ad0000 r--p 00069000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ad0000-7f4f75ad1000 ---p 00080000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ad1000-7f4f75ad2000 r--p 00080000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ad2000-7f4f75ad3000 rw-p 00081000 08:03 979585                     /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libgmp.so.10.3.2
7f4f75ad3000-7f4f75ada000 r--p 00000000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75ada000-7f4f75ae9000 r-xp 00007000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75ae9000-7f4f75aee000 r--p 00016000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75aee000-7f4f75aef000 r--p 0001a000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75aef000-7f4f75af0000 rw-p 0001b000 08:03 978899                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread-2.29.so
7f4f75af0000-7f4f75af4000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
7f4f75af4000-7f4f75b19000 r--p 00000000 08:03 978842                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.29.so
7f4f75b19000-7f4f75c60000 r-xp 00025000 08:03 978842                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.29.so
7f4f75c60000-7f4f75ca9000 r--p 0016c000 08:03 978842                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.29.so
7f4f75ca9000-7f4f75caa000 ---p 001b5000 08:03 978842                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.29.so
7f4f75caa000-7f4f75cad000 r--p 001b5000 08:03 978842                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.29.so
7f4f75cad000-7f4f75cb0000 rw-p 001b8000 08:03 978842                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.29.so
7f4f75cb0000-7f4f75cb4000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
7f4f75cb4000-7f4f75cdd000 r--p 00000000 08:03 1053434                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5.7
7f4f75cdd000-7f4f75e85000 r-xp 00029000 08:03 1053434                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5.7
7f4f75e85000-7f4f75f5c000 r--p 001d1000 08:03 1053434                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5.7
7f4f75f5c000-7f4f75f64000 r--p 002a7000 08:03 1053434                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5.7
7f4f75f64000-7f4f75f65000 rw-p 002af000 08:03 1053434                    /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libruby-2.5.so.2.5.7
7f4f75f65000-7f4f75f77000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
7f4f75f77000-7f4f75f78000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
7f4f75f78000-7f4f75f7c000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
7f4f75f7c000-7f4f75f7d000 r--p 00000000 08:03 978828                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ld-2.29.so
7f4f75f7d000-7f4f75f9c000 r-xp 00001000 08:03 978828                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ld-2.29.so
7f4f75f9c000-7f4f75fa4000 r--p 00020000 08:03 978828                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ld-2.29.so
7f4f75fa4000-7f4f75fa5000 r--p 00027000 08:03 978828                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ld-2.29.so
7f4f75fa5000-7f4f75fa6000 rw-p 00028000 08:03 978828                     /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ld-2.29.so
7f4f75fa6000-7f4f75fa7000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
7ffe0b492000-7ffe0bc91000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0                          [stack]
7ffe0bd84000-7ffe0bd87000 r--p 00000000 00:00 0                          [vvar]
7ffe0bd87000-7ffe0bd89000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0                          [vdso]


[NOTE]
You may have encountered a bug in the Ruby interpreter or extension libraries.
Bug reports are welcome.
For details: http://www.ruby-lang.org/bugreport.html

Aborted (core dumped)

Practical Challenges of Interdisciplinary Teamwork

Teamwork
Teamwork — logo created using inscakes's open symbols (Emoji One)

Working in an interdisciplinary field is my vocation. I am a Bioinformatician – my whole education was shaped by an interdisciplinary nature. I get paid by the University of Rostock, which is also everything but straight forward: Part-time I am working as a systems engineer for the institute of computer science, the other time I’m working at the department of systems biology and bioinformatics (SBI). Thus, I have two desks at the university, which are approximately 2km away from each other. At these desks I am doing hardcore IT stuff and/or/xor applied computer science in various projects and roles. My colleagues are again purely non-pure: There are computer scientists from Italy, mathematicians from India, medical biotechnologists from Canada, neurobiologists from Germany, computational engineers from Pakistan, and so on.. At one desk I am talking in English, at the other everyone’s expecting German (including complaints about anglicisms)..

Here I’m just jotting down some experiences from the recent past to increase the awareness of the complexity on the meta-level of interdisciplinary and intercultural collaborations.

Different Cultures…

Pretty early I learned about the issues when working across different domains, languages, and cultures. For example, a yes from a German to Do you understand what I just explained? typically means (s)he understood what I just explained. However, some cultures would not publicly admit a lack of understanding. Thus, my colleague will say (s)he understood and then go away to actually do the opposite.

Some time ago, I offered a beer to an Asian friend. He denied and so he did not get one. Months later he confessed that he has been suffering, watching me enjoying the cold beer – as he desperately wanted a beer as well! But in his culture you wouldn’t immediately take something offered. Instead he wants to be persuaded into a beer…

Hence, a no does not necessarily mean no. And vice versa, if he offers me some tea or sweets, he would not take my no for granted, but would offer the sweets again and again ;-)

Different Languages…

Such contradictions are not necessarily a cultural issue, but it is sometimes due to the language: If our mother tongues differ we are typically falling back to English, which is then a foreign language for both dialogue partners. Consequently, everyone struggles expressing and grasping thoughts. This entails a good potential for misunderstandings. In addition, there may be a clash of domain languages – experts from different fields think in orthogonal concepts or use the same words differently.

I recently had a kitchen-conversation with a biophysicist from Iran about PCR: The polymerase chain reaction. For quite some time I thought he must be drunk, because it did absolutely make no sense what he was talking about. Until I realised, that he was actually talking about PCA: The Principal Component Analysis! Both, PCR and PCA would have made sense to chat about with him and the pronunciation of the German A (ʔaː) and the English R (ɑːr) is quite similar..

There are many similar confusions. At our department, for example, PSA is used for a public service announcement or for a prostate-specific antigen – that’s not always crystal clear. Similarly, APT is an abbreviation for apartment at one of my desks, while it may mean advanced persistent threat or that someone is talking about Debian’s package manager at the other desk.

Different Tools…

However, it is not only about languages, but also about best-practices in different domains! People from diverse disciplines learnt to use diverging tools and workflows, that sometimes seem crazy from the opposite perspective.

Not long ago, we built a website in an interdisciplinary project. The developer drafted some text for the webpage and asked the others to review the wording and correct typos – assuming to get a pull request, as the sources are shared on a common code platform. However, the response was an email with a .docx attachment: The whole text of the web page was copied to Microsoft Word and then corrected using track-changes! Which in turn caused further trouble with the developer, who’s not used to work with Microsoft’s office… ;-)

Indeed, that happens all too often!

The other day, someone sent an email

Please kindly find the attached file, the first draft of workflow.
I am looking forward to your feedback.

attached was a file Präsentation2.pptx. That, of course, made the tech-guy’s hair stand on end! Powerpoint to draw figures? A meaningless file name with German diaeresis (Umlaut)? And the 2 in the file’s name explains everything about how the documents are versioned..

And so goes the whole communication between the experts from different domains. While some always communicate through tickets on the coding platform, others will respond with attachments to emails or using some other channels (such as Twitter messages or whatever chat protocols). Consequently, you are spending a significant amount of time on searching, jigsawing, and puzzling messages.

Different Times…

The communication becomes even more difficult if the partners are located in different time zones. Obviously, there is then less overlap in working hours.

When I write an email to a collaborator in New Zealand, he will typically receive it around the middle of his night and answer in the middle of my night. For a call, we need to schedule a meeting which is out-of-office-time for both of us.

Consequently, decisions, that would have been made in a few minutes during a f2f meeting, can take several days of discussions.

Different Goverments…

Working across different time zones typically also implies working across loyalties. My collaborators may need to comply with very different laws – or they may be affected by other absurd rules!

In a recent project we decided to use one of these big American platforms to facilitate our collaboration. Suddenly, it turned out that some people in the team cannot access the platform anymore. Even though they did nothing wrong, a wigged carrot on steroids violently banned them with embargos or sanctions. Including all consequences.

Such things are simply unpredictable, but have serious impact on the collaboration.

Ergo… Stop?

With all these difficulties, should you stop interdisciplinary teamwork? Certainly not!! Instead, be aware of these challenges and budget some extra time

  • to learn how to speak to one another without confusion,
  • to acknowledge the complexity on the meta-level of interactions, and
  • for unexpected interruptions.

Despite all the difficulties, it’s great to work in diverse teams! Even though it drove me crazy multiple times, I learnt to appreciate decelerations. Different skills, contradictory perspectives, and orthogonal peculiarities entail many discussions and cost a great deal of energy, but almost always improve the quality of the product.

In addition, and maybe more importantly, working in an interdisciplinary field expands your horizon and you will learn things you cannot imagine.

A recent visitor from Hong Kong exchanged insights about the current protests in his home country. I had a conversation with two colleague from India and Pakistan about the Kashmir conflict. And I actually felt the effects of embargos - which are otherwise far away from Germans..

However, the outcome is absolutely worth the “trouble” ;-)



Martin Scharm

stuff. just for the records.